Animal and Human Welfare and Ethics


Ethical Guidelines

Principles of the 3Rs

  • Adhere to the principles of the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) to minimize animal usage and suffering.

  • For Human studies, adhere to the principles of Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans – TCPS 2 T2CP.

Proper Animal Care

  • Design and plan for implementation of proper housing, nutrition, and veterinary care for the animals with animal care and health professionals at Animal Care and Veterinary Services (ACVS).

Animal Welfare

  • Ensure appropriate monitoring of animal welfare throughout the study and use humane endpoints to minimize distress as per Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) guidelines.