Greta Bauer, PhD 


CIHR Sex and Gender Science Chair



Research Cluster Membership

Research Interests

  • Intersectionality and research methods
  • LGBT health
  • Community-based epidemiology
  • Validity issues in observational studies
  • Methodologic and ethical issues in studying hidden populations


  • BS Health and Health Care
  • MPH Epidemiology
  • PhD Epidemiology

Current Research Research Grants

  • Epidemiological Methods in Sex- and Gender-Based Analysis Plus (SGBA+): Advancing Intersectional Approaches to Sex and Gender Science (CIHR Sex and Gender Science Chair)
  • Trans PULSE Canada: A National Survey of Transgender Health (Principal Investigator, CIHR)
  • Transgender Youth in Clinical Care: A Pan-Canadian Cohort Study of Medical, Social and Family Outcomes (Principal Investigator, CIHR)

Publications (past 5 years)

*  Indicates author was current or former student under my primary supervision.

  • Bauer GR, Lizotte DJ. Artificial intelligence, intersectionality, and the future of public health [invited editorial]. In press, American Journal of Public Health.
  • Lacombe-Duncan A, Logie CH, Newman PA, Bauer GR, Kazemi M. A qualitative study of resilience among transgender women living with HIV in response to stigma in healthcare. Online in advance of print, AIDS Care.
  • Bauer GR, Mahendran M,* Braimoh J, Alam S,* Churchill S.* Identifying visible minorities or racialized persons in surveys: Can we just ask? Canadian Journal of Public Health 2020;111:371-382.
  • Scheim AI, Perez-Brumer A, Bauer GR. Gender-concordant identity documents and mental health among transgender adults in the United States. Lancet Public Health 2020;5(4):e196-e203.
  • Lizotte D, Mahendran M,* Churchill SM,* Bauer GR. Math versus meaning in MAIHDA: A commentary on multilevel statistical models for quantitative intersectionality. Social Science & Medicine 2020;245:112500:1-8. 
  • Shokoohi M,* Bauer GR, Kaida A, Milloy M-J, LloydSmith E, Lacombe-Duncan A, Logie C, Carter A, Loutfy M. A latent class analysis of the social determinants of health impacting heavy alcohol consumption among women living with HIV in Canada: The Canadian HIV Women’s Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study. AIDS and Behavior 2019;23(12):3226-3236.
  • Lacombe-Duncan A, Newman PA, Bauer GR, Logie CH, Persad Y, Beaver K, Shokoohi M, O’Brien N, Kaida A, de Pokomandy A, Loutfy M. Gender-affirming healthcare experiences and medical transition among transgender women living with HIV: A mixed-methods study. Sexual Health 2019;16(4):367-376.
  • Lacombe-Duncan A, Bauer GR, Logie CH, Newman PA, Shokoohi M, Kay ES, Persad Y, O’Brien N, Kaida A, de Pokomandy A, Loutfy M. The HIV care cascade among transgender women with HIV in Canada: A mixed-methods study. AIDS Patient Care & STDs 2019;33(7):308-322.
  • Dharma C,* Scheim AI,* Bauer GR. Exploratory factor analysis of two sexual health scales for transgender people: Trans-specific condom/barrier negotiation self-efficacy (T-Barrier) and trans-specific sexual body image worries (T-Worries). Archives of Sexual Behavior 2019;48(5):1563-1572.
  • Shokoohi M,* Bauer GR, Kaida A, Logie C, Lacombe-Duncan A, Milloy M-J, LloydSmith E, Carter A, Loutfy M. Patterns of social determinants of health associated with drug use among women living with HIV in Canada: A latent class analysis. Addiction. 2019;114(7):1214-1224.
  • Bauer GR, Scheim AI.* Advancing quantitative intersectionality research methods: Intracategorical and intercategorical approaches to shared and differential constructs [author response to four invited commentaries]. Social Science & Medicine 2019;226:260-262.
  • Bauer GR, Scheim AI.* Methods for analytic intercategorical intersectionality in quantitative research: Discrimination as a mediator of health inequalities. Social Science & Medicine 2019;226:236-245.
  • Scheim AI,* Bauer GR. The Intersectional Discrimination Index: Development and validation of measures of self-reported enacted and anticipated discrimination. Social Science & Medicine 2019;226:225-235.
  • Shokoohi M,* Bauer GR, Kaida A, Lacombe-Duncan A, Kazemi M, Gagnier B, de Pokomandy A, Loutfy M, on behalf of the CHIWOS Research Team. Social determinants of health and self-rated health status: A comparison between women living with HIV and women without HIV from the general population in Canada. PLOS ONE 2019;14(3):e0213901.
  • Scheim AI,* Bauer GR. Sexual inactivity among transfeminine persons: A Canadian respondent-driven sampling survey. Journal of Sex Research 2019;56(2):264-271.
  • Shokoohi M,* Karamouzian M, Bauer G, Sharifi H, Hooshyar SH, Mirzazadeh A. Drug use patterns and associated factors among female sex workers in Iran. Addictive Behaviors 2019;90:40-47.
  • Shokoohi M,* Bauer GR, Kaida A, Lacombe-Duncan A, Kazemi M, Gagnier B, de Pokomandy A, Loutfy M, on behalf of the CHIWOS Research Team. Substance use patterns among women living with HIV compared with the general female population of Canada. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2018;191:70-77.
  • Scheim AI,* Zong X,* Giblon R,* Bauer GR. Disparities in access to family physicians among transgender people in Ontario, Canada. International Journal of Transgenderism 2017;18(3):343-352.
  • Munro L, Marshall Z, Bauer G, Hammond R, Nault C, Travers R. (Dis)integrated care: Barriers to health care utilization for trans women living with HIV. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care 2017;28(5):708-722.
  • Brennan DJ, Bauer GR, Bradley K, Tran OV. Methods used and topics addressed in quantitative health research on gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men: A systematic review of the literature. Journal of Homosexuality 2017;64(11):1519-1538.
  • Blot S,* Bauer GR, Fraser M, Nleya M, Wadham M. AIDS service organization access among African, Caribbean and other Black residents of an average Canadian city. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 2017;19(4):851-860.
  • Bauer GR, Braimoh J, Scheim AI,* Dharma C.* Transgender-inclusive measures of sex/gender for population surveys: Mixed-methods evaluation and recommendations. PLOS ONE 2017;12(5):e0178043.
  • Giblon R,* Bauer GR. Health care availability, quality, and unmet need: A comparison of transgender and cisgender residents of Ontario. BMC Health Services Research 2017;17:283.
  • Scheim AI,* Bauer GR, Shokoohi M.* Drug use among transgender people in Ontario, Canada: Disparities and associations with social exclusion. Addictive Behaviors 2017;72:151-158.
  • Dharma C,* Bauer GR. Understanding sexual orientation and health in Canada: Who are we capturing and who are we missing using the Statistics Canada sexual orientation question? Canadian Journal of Public Health 2017;108(1):e21-e26.
  • Bauer GR, Giblon R,* Coleman TA,* Aykroyd G, Fraser M, Pugh D. Community acceptance and HIV risk among gay and bisexual men in a ‘typical’ Canadian city. Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 2017;26(1):7-16.
  • Scheim AI,* Bauer GR, Travers R. HIV-related sexual risk among transgender men who are gay, bisexual, or have sex with men. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2017;74(4):e89-e96.
  • Coleman TA,* Bauer GR, Pugh D, Aykroyd G, Powell L, Newman R. Sexual orientation disclosure in primary care settings by gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men in a Canadian city. LGBT Health 2017;4(1):42-54.
  • Coleman TA,* Bauer GR, Aykroyd G, Powell L, Pugh D. Mental health service use in a sample of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men in Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada: An exploratory analysis. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health 2016:35(3):1-24.
  • Scheim AI,* Bauer GR, Shokoohi M.* Heavy episodic drinking among transgender persons: Disparities and predictors. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2016;167:156-162.
  • Scheim AI,* Bauer GR, Coleman TA.* Sociodemographic differences by survey mode in a respondent-driven sampling study of transgender people in Ontario, Canada. LGBT Health 2016;3(5):391-395.
  • Bowleg L, Bauer GR. Invited reflection: Quantifying intersectionality [invited commentary]. Psychology of Women Quarterly 2016;40(3):337341.
  • Bauer GR, Flanders C, MacLeod M,* Ross LE. Occurrence of multiple mental health or substance use outcomes among bisexuals. BMC Public Health 2016;16:497.
  • Ross LE, O’Gorman L, MacLeod MA,* Bauer GR, MacKay J, Robinson M. Bisexual identity, socioeconomic status, and mental health: A mixed-methods analysis. Social Science & Medicine 2016;156:64-72.
  • Baidoobonso S,* Bauer G, Speechley KN, Lawson E. Social and proximate determinants of the frequency of condom use among African, Caribbean, and other Black people in a Canadian city: Results from the BLACCH Study. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 2016;18:67-85.