J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2016 Jul;152(1):9-13.
Rodriguez E, Nifong LW, Bonatti J, Casula R, Falk V, Folliguet TA, Kiaii BB, Mack MJ, Mihaljevic T, Smith JM, Suri RM, Bavaria JE, MacGillivray TE, Chitwood WR Jr.
"Cardiac surgeons receive appropriate training for conventional sternotomy-based cardiac surgical operations in either residency or postgradudate programs; however, only a few education programs offer training specifically in minimally invasive cardiac surgery... these programs generally do not provide training in robotic-assisted cardiac surgery...
This document presents a potential pathway and set of recommendations for both individual surgeons and surgical programs to begin or to participate in robotic-assisted adult cardiac surgery. By adhering to these criteria, cardiac surgeons can expect to follow minimum safety standards for implementation and independent conduct of robot-assisted cardiac surgical procedures. This document establishes criteria supported by The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) and The American Association for Thoracic Surgery (AATS)" (Rodriguez 2016, p. 9)